The design of marine outfalls is often based on environmental criteria for a minimum initial dilution. Accordingly advanced diffuser arrangement are designed to fulfil these requirements. A large number of examples of malfunction and blocking in sea outfalls have occurred around the world as a result of this uncompromising consent to environmental demands. Two examples of unconventional design are given in this paper. Both cases involved risk of blockage of the diffuser section because of wave and current induced sediment transport. The paper also discusses how acceptable far field dilution conditions can be achieved even if normally accepted initial criteria are not fulfilled.
Torben Larsen; Diffuser design for marine outfalls in areas with strong currents, high waves and sediment transport. Water Sci Technol 1 July 1995; 32 (2): 249–255. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1995.0113
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