The paper brings together a useful summary of all aspects of design and implementation of outfall schemes for the disposal of wastewater effluents. It outlines methods of assessment of the receiving water in relation to short-term and long-term impacts using the concept of Environmental Quality Objectives, with reference to European Union (EU) Standards and United Kingdom (UK) Practice. The need for good field data is outlined with appropriate methods and an indication of cost. A discussion of predictive modelling techniques and of the need to integrate combined storm discharges is included. The principles of hydraulic and structural design are outlined with special reference to the design of diffusers and to the impact on this of different characteristics of the receiving water. Finally, a brief review is given of the construction methods available at the present time.
Raymond F. Caine; Sea outfalls for the disposal and treatment of wastewater effluents. Water Sci Technol 1 October 1995; 32 (7): 79–86. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1995.0206
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