Detecting wastewater toxicity in due time is essential for protection of a sewage works and the receiving waters. A respirometric method is presented that performs short batch experiments, so-called In-Sensor-Experiments for toxicity detection. Two types of wastewater samples can be added to the reactor in the device: either the potentially toxic wastewater entering the plant, or, a defined mixture of acetate and ammonia. From the latter experiments models are identified that describe the heterotrophic and autotrophic activity of the sludge. Since these ‘calibration’ experiments are alternated with experiments in which wastewater is injected, the effect of the wastewater on the sludge can be quantified unequivocally.
Full-scale toxicity detection (and the corresponding effluent quality) results are reported for a plant treating a mixture of hospital and municipal wastewaters. The respirometer was installed at the influent line of the plant. It was evaluated during a 6-month period for its on-line toxicity detection capacity. Both deliberate and accidental intoxications were recorded and compared with off-line toxicity measurements. Inhibitory wastewaters affected the nitrification activity of the sludge. This was confirmed by the concomitant increase in NH4+ discharge of the treatment plant. To evaluate the efficiency of control actions, the deliberate addition of toxicant was interrupted at the time a toxicity alarm was triggered by the respirometer. It was observed that plant performance then remained unaffected for all monitored criteria.