The first full-scale constructed wetland (CW) for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic was built in 1989. By the end of 1991 only three more CW had been put into operation. An inventory survey in 1994 revealed the presence of 41 constructed wetlands in operation or in building. All CW in the Czech Republic use the horizontal subsurface-flow configuration. With few exceptions, all systems have been designed for the secondary treatment of domestic or municipal sewage. The treatment area of vegetated beds ranges between 18 and 4493 m2 and population equivalent ranges between 4 and 1100. Common reed (Phragmites australis) is the most frequently used plant cover. The treatment efficiency is very high for organics (77–98% for BOD5, 59–91% for COD) and suspended solids (77–99%). The removal efficiency for nitrogen and phosphorus varies widely among systems and is generally lower than 60%.
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Research Article| December 01 1996
Jan Vymazal; Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic the first 5 years experience. Water Sci Technol 1 December 1996; 34 (11): 159–164. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1996.0275
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