Empirical bromate formation models were developed from batch ozonation data to simulate the effects of important water quality characteristics and treatment processes on bromate formation. Bromate formation was favored at high pH, bromide concentration, alkalinity, and ozone dose. On the other hand, increasing DOC and ammonia concentration decreased bromate formation. Validation of the bromate models demonstrated that the models accurately simulated bromate formation. Risk analysis of bromate formation was performed on 5 utilities in which ozone was used, and it was concluded that under typical ozonation conditions, the associated risk related to bromate formation could be as high as 10−3.

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