Sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) can be successfully operated for both carbon and nutrient removal, including nitrogen and phosphorus. The major elements of design that accomplish population dynamics control to prevent filamentous sludge bulking, cycle time, oxygen supply, biological nitrification, denitrification, phosphorus removal and solids-liquid separation need to be set in such a way that sufficiently optimal conditions are provided to permit the reactions and processes to take place. SBR processing using cyclic activated sludge technology employs biological selectors in the inlet part of the SBR system and a minor sludge recycle stream to ensure influent wastewater is mixed with activated sludge flocs to create favourable conditions for kinetic and metabolic selection of microorganisms producing floccules. Reaction volume, in addition to the designated bottom water level volume, is variable through time fed-batch reactor mode of operation. A mathematical model that describes volume changes and simultaneously the biodegradation kinetics has been developed. The model describes theoretical behaviour of selected parameters of volume, suspended solids concentration, OUR, ammonia and nitrate nitrogen in the selector compartment and the main aerated basin in ideally mixed and filled reactors of the cyclic system during the phase of mixed-fill (selector) and aerated and non-aerated fill (main aeration reactor basin).

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