New Zealand's primary environmental legislation, the Resource Management Act (RMA), was enacted in 1991. The RMA is effects based rather than activity based and is intended to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources. A number of New Zealand's pulp and paper mills are now coming under the permitting requirements of the RMA. The prime environmental concerns have been associated with the two kraft mills, and include dissolved oxygen, color, toxicity, nutrients and impacts on fisheries. This paper presents a case study of one of these mills and discusses the regulatory approach which is to be adopted under the constraints of the RMA.

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