The development of appropriate strategies for the treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is a major problem for all conurbations throughout the world. Sludge treatment and disposal not only represents half of the total costs of municipal wastewater collection, treatment and disposal, but it is also strongly regulated, more so than almost any other form of waste, and readily attracts adverse media and public attention. Thus the challenge for wastewater authorities is to find affordable, sustainable and safe approaches to sludge management, which are also publicly acceptable. This paper describes the Best Environmental Option (BPEO) approach to identifying optimum sludge treatment and disposal strategies and its application to the sludge management problems of city of Warsaw and the surrounding region.

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