Conventional UDS models are mechanistic which though appropriate for design purposes are less well suited to real-time control because they are slow running, difficult to calibrate, difficult to re-calibrate in real time and have trouble handling noisy data. At Salford University a novel hybrid of dynamic and empirical modelling has been developed, to combine the speed of the empirical model with the ability to simulate complex and non-linear systems of the mechanistic/dynamic models. This paper details the ‘knowledge acquisition module’ software and how it has been applied to construct a model of a large urban drainage system. The paper goes on to detail how the model has been linked with real-time radar data inputs from the MARS c-band radar.

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