This paper aims to review the development of wastewater treatment operation and control over the last two decades. Due to the authors' background and experiences there is a special emphasis on the Scandinavian perspective. Since the developments in these countries have been in the forefront in the wastewater treatment area we believe that it may give a reasonable view of the progress also in other countries. The results of regulatory, technical and economical driving forces are discussed. A brief historical review of the progress of nutrient removal is made, and current methodologies for the operation and control of nutrient removal systems is reviewed.

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