Ammonium removal occurs in both the surface water reservoir and rapid sand filters of Amsterdam Water Supply. Nitrification in the reservoir is best modelled as a first order reaction with a temperature dependent breakdown coefficient. In moderate winters, the increase of ammonium concentration in the filter influent is compensated but stagnation of nitrification in the Winter of '95–'96 led to a two and half month excess of the ammonium maximum admissible concentration. Only after the start of phosphate dosing, full restoration of nitrification was achieved. A model to alert for ammonium breakthrough was developed based on growth characteristics of Nitrosomonas.
Nitrification and low temperature in a raw water reservoir and rapid sand filters
L. J. Kors, J. H. N. Moorman, A. P. M. Wind, J. P. van der Hoek; Nitrification and low temperature in a raw water reservoir and rapid sand filters. Water Sci Technol 1 January 1998; 37 (2): 169–176. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1998.0131
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