Most of the future works in water and waste water treatment systems will involve the upgrading of existing facilities, for better performance and/or higher capacity. For the efficient implementation of any project, an upgrading strategy should be used, based on careful studies of the local conditions and the defined objectives to be reached.

The paper presents a systematic approach to upgrading with emphasis on treatment plant extension, without investing in large volumes, by more efficient use of existing facilities, illustrated by some cases. The importance of real competition in obtaining a cost-effective implementation is stressed.

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