Vanadium and nickel were found as major contaminants on spent FCC catalyst at levels of 3518 ppm and 3225 ppm, respectively. XPS results indicated that vanadium and nickel were in oxide form on spent FCC catalysts. Leaching tests (TCLP) showed that vanadium from spent FCC catalysts poses an environmental problem if disposed by landfill. It was found that encapsulation treatment with up to 60 wt % spent FCC catalyst in Portland cement, is an effective means of stabilization. The strength of standard specimens containing catalyst was much lower than that of standard specimens made with same weight percentage of sand.
Encapsulation of heavy metals on spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst
D. Sun, X. Z. Li, M. Brungs, D. Trimm; Encapsulation of heavy metals on spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst. Water Sci Technol 1 August 1998; 38 (4-5): 211–217. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1998.0625
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