The effects of cadmium on early life stages of a freshwater snail, Physa acuta (Draparnaud), were investigated. The 24- and 48-hour LC50 for embryos were 1.27 mg/l (95% confidence interval: 1.13 - 1.42) and 0.85 mg/l (0.71 - 1.01), respectively. The 24- and 48-hour LC50 for juveniles were 1.32 mg/l (1.13 - 1.54) and 1.05 mg/l (0.81 - 1.36), respectively. An increase in cadmium concentrations at sublethal levels resulted in a significant reduction in embryo growth rate and embryo hatchability. Developmental deformities of the embryos were also observed. The NOEC and LOEC for embryonic growth were 0.32 and 0.50 mg/l, respectively, and the LOEC for hatchability was 0.13 mg/l. These results suggest that embryonic growth and hatchability are useful endpoints in chronic toxicity tests. In addition, the potential use of early life stages of pulmonate snails in ecotoxicological tests is discussed.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.