Aqueous solubility is evaluated as a predictor of microbial toxicity. Experimental toxicity data for activated sludge, methanogens, nitrobacter, and two commercial cultures, Polytox and Microtox were correlated with experimental solubility data for over 70 organic chemicals of diverse molecular structures and congeneric families. The database covered over 8 log units of aqueous solubility and over 6 log units of IC50 values. Statistically significant correlations were found between log (IC50) and log (solubility) for all the microorganisms, with coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.70 to 0.76 at a level of significance of p = 0.0001. An overall correlation was found to be log (IC50, mM/l) = 0.68 log (Solubility, mM/l) - 0.25, with an r2 = 0.756 for nearly 200 data points.

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