In order to create a picture of the pollutant pathways for snow in urban areas, snow samples were collected in the city of Luleå, northern Sweden. Sampling sites were chosen in the city centre and in a housing area - three different sites in each area. Snow samples were collected during the whole winter of 1995. The results showed that the amounts of dissolved substances as percentages of the total amounts varied according to time, site and the type of substance. For the sites along the roadsides in the city centre, the amounts that were in solution were less than 1% of the lead, 2.5% of the phosphorus, 11% of the copper, and 18% of the zinc. For the site with no-traffic, the dissolved fractions were considerably higher.
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Maria Viklander; Dissolved and particle-bound substances in urban snow. Water Sci Technol 1 June 1999; 39 (12): 27–32. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1999.0525
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