An activated sludge model for biological N- and P-removal was developed, which describes anoxic and aerobic P-uptake based on bacterial metabolism. This model was tested in practice on two wastewater treatment plants, which are BCFS®-processes, which contain activated sludge with a high fraction of denitrifying P-removing bacteria (DPB's). The model appeared to be able to give an adequate description of the performance of these treatment plants under different conditions. If the process parameters are well defined almost no calibration of the biokinetic parameters was necessary. In the simulation of Dalfsen wwtp, which has a complex control scheme, it was possible to give an adequate simulation of the control actions and the concentration profiles in a rather simple way, showing that detailed simulation of these controllers was not necessary. With the calibrated model it was possible to analyse bottlenecks and give suggestions for upgrading of the concerned treatments plants. The simulation results were used in decisions on investments.

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