Mathematical models are useful tools in the prediction of system responses to operational changes in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). The tanks-in-series model is one of the widespread hydraulic models in waste water treatment. This study shows the applicability of the mentioned model. Next to the mixing of substrate in a conventional activated sludge system, an oxidation ditch and a trickling filter, also the flow propagation in a waste water treatment plant was modelled. These different full-scale examples taken from waste water treatment demonstrate the relative ease of model configuration and calibration. Difficulties like experimental design, modelling the diffusion in biofilms and transients in flow rate were encountered.

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