The minimal contact time in removal of ammonia ions by ion-exchange with zeolite, Na-form, is determined using the method of differential element. The relationship between the contact time, the water velocity, the effect of removal and the initial ammonia concentration is investigated. The obtained data serve as a basis for mathematical modeling of the ion exchange kinetics and give valuable information about some design parameters of ion-exchange facilities. Some basic analyses, concerning the desorption of ammonia from zeolite, induced mainly from the cations naturally present in surface waters are made. The influence of water velocity and water hardness on such desorption is investigated. These experimental data and analyses are an essential part of a study, the purpose of which is to investigate the possibilities for ammonia removal and biological regeneration of zeolite in a combined facility, using the processes: ion-exchange, desorption induced by small concentrations of cations and biological nitrification.
Combined filter for ammonia removal – part I: Minimal zeolite contact time and requirements for desorption
G. Dimova, G. Mihailov, Tz. Tzankov; Combined filter for ammonia removal – part I: Minimal zeolite contact time and requirements for desorption. Water Sci Technol 1 April 1999; 39 (8): 123–129. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1999.0401
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