Black Sea riparian countries have committed to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment of the Black Sea from land-based sources in accordance with Article VII of the Bucharest Convention. Gathering information on the sources of pollution was one of the basic requirements of the Odessa Ministerial Declaration of the Black Sea countries. This paper presents a summary of the outcome of the studies conducted to fulfil this obligation. The aim of this study has been limited to the point sources of wastewater discharges including domestic as well as industrial discharges. The inputs through main rivers were also included in the scope. Solid wastes directly or indirectly discharged or dumped into the Black Sea were not included in this study. Diffuse sources, surface runoff (storm water) and air emissions were not included in the scope of the study. In this paper, total domestic, industrial and riverine pollution loads of the major pollutants such as BOD, TSS, TN and TP were presented for each of the six Black Sea riparian countries after compilation of the data. Rapid assessment techniques of WHO were adopted in the study to estimate the pollutant loads of the point sources. The major source of contamination to the Black Sea arises as a result of the inputs of contaminants from international rivers, especially the River Danube. The other international rivers are also crucial in the pollution of the Black Sea, although the River Danube is the dominant pollutant source. The fact that the total riverine input is about 85% of the total pollution load of BOD demonstrates the significance of the control of the riverine sources. Total pollution loads of each Black Sea country and their breakdown as domestic, industrial and riverine inputs were presented both in graphical and in tabulated forms. Furthermore, the contribution of the oil pollution and pollution exchange through straits (Kerch and Bosphorus Straits) are also given.
Region-wide assessment of the land-based sources of pollution of the black sea
H. Z. Sarikaya, M. F. Sevimli, E. Çitil; Region-wide assessment of the land-based sources of pollution of the black sea. Water Sci Technol 1 April 1999; 39 (8): 193–200. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1999.0419
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