In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds in diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects. It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface wash-off. This description implies that the wave front is formed from the fluid that was present in the sewer before the flow rate increased, that is the sewage! By means of measurements and numerical simulations, it is shown that this effect may cause a significant impact of dissolved compounds on the receiving water, when a combined sewer overflow occurs, and also on the wastewater treatment plant when the sewer network is flat and catchment area is big.
Research Article|May 01 1999
First flush of dissolved compounds
Jacco L. Huisman
Water Sci Technol (1999) 39 (9): 55-62.
Peter Krebs, Peter Holzer, Jacco L. Huisman, Wolfgang Rauch; First flush of dissolved compounds. Water Sci Technol 1 May 1999; 39 (9): 55–62. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1999.0441
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