One of the most recent and progressive reactor principles used in anaerobic wastewater treatment technology is a vertical compartmentalization, which is used in the USSB (Upflow Staged Sludge Bed) reactor. Thanks to its specific design and features the operation of such a reactor can be very flexible. Examples are given showing tested alternatives of operation with combined wastewater and sludge treatment. A high treatment efficiency and a very low specific sludge production was achieved with the operation of a technological system consisting of a USSB reactor and an aerobic biofilm reactor. In the USSB reactor wastewater and surplus sludge treatment can not only be combined but also anaerobic pretreatment and biological denitrification.

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