Constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow (HSF CWs) usually provide high removal of BOD5. Organic compounds are degraded by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere of vegetated beds. The results from the Czech HSF CWs showed an average treatment efficiency of 86.6% with an average effluent BOD5 concentration of 13.2 mg 1−1. The BOD5 loading of vegetated beds of HSF CWs varied between 2.6 and 99.6 kg ha−1 d−1 with an average of 33.5 kg ha−1 d−1. The results also indicated that the removal of BOD5 is not temperature dependent and is steady throughout the year.

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