A case-oriented approach is used to illustrate developments and applications of biological and physicochemical technologies, either alone or in sequenced arrays, for advanced treatment to facilitate reuse of water in a range of environmental scenarios. Examples cited include chemical oxidation processes for removal of color and oxygen demand from textile mill effluents, sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment of recalcitrant and inhibitory organic compounds in ammunition plant wastewaters, separation and recovery of organic solvents from mixed industrial waste streams, remediation of contaminated subsurface waters, membrane treatment of effluents from secondary biological wastewater treatment plants, and integrated bio-membrane treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters. The paper provides an overview of methods and applications for source waters of various qualities. It concludes with a generalized guide to technology selection based upon specific water characteristics.

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