Most of the water has been captured in the rivers of Israel and they have turned into dry river-beds which deliver only sporadic winter floods. In a semi-arid country where literally every drop of water is used, reclaimed wastewater is the most feasible water source for river recovery. Two topics are addressed in this paper: water quality management in rivers where most of the flowing water is treated wastewater, and the allocations of reclaimed wastewater required for the recovery of rivers and streams. Water quality management must consider that the main source of water to the river has a pollution loading which reduces its capability to absorb other pollution impacts. The allocation of treated wastewater for the revival of rivers may not affect negatively the water balance of the region; it may eventually improve it. An upstream bruto allocation of 122 MCM/year of wastewater for the recovery of 14 rivers in Israel may favor downstream reuse of this wastewater, resulting in a small neto allocation and in an increase of the water resources available to the country. The discharge of effluents upstream to revive the river followed by their re-capture downstream for irrigation, implies a further stage in the intensification of water reuse.

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