The objectives of this study were to investigate various distribution conditions that directly affect the production of tastes and odors, identify the chemical causes, and develop guidelines to help water utilities solve or prevent these types of problems. This paper presents four case studies of taste-and-odor problems generated in distribution systems. Two types of problems will be presented, (1) problems that occur in association with pipe or reservoir lining material leaching into the water and (2) problems that are caused by a continuation of chemical reactions in the water within the distribution system. The sensory method used was flavor profile analysis (FPA) and the chemical methods were closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Bromophenols and bromodichloroiodomethanes were found to be the cause of the medicinal odors, while alkyl benzenes and naphthalene were found to be associated with the oil-base paint type of odors.

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