Treatment of humic water was studied in a pilot-scale ozonation/biofiltration treatment plant. The raw water had TOC and CODMn concentrations of 3.2-5.0 and 4.1-6.6 mgO 1−1, respectively, and colour (410 nm) of 30-50 mgPt 1−1. The effect of biofilter loading rate on removal of organic matter and ozonation by-products was investigated in two upflow biofilters containing expanded clay aggregate (Filtralite) media. The empty bed contact times ranged from 11 to 54 min. The TOC removals varied from 18 to 37% and the CODMn removals from 30 to 48% with ozone dosages from 1.0 to 1.7 mgO3 mgTOC−1. The ozone dosage seemed to have larger effect on removal efficiency than the loading rate. Concentrations of aldehydes (sum of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal and methyl glyoxal) were 41-47 μg 1−1 in ozonated water. Formaldehyde and glyoxal were the only aldehydes detected from the biofilter effluents at concentrations higher than 1 μg 1−1, but their mean concentrations were below 2.1 μg 1−1. The ketoacid concentrations (sum of glyoxylic, pyruvic and ketomalonic acids) ranged from 272 to 441 μg 1−1. Average biofilter effluent concentrations varied from 5.3 (glyoxylic acid) up to 67 μg 1−1 (ketomalonic acid) with steady-state reductions generally over 80%. The aldehydes and ketoacids accounted on average for 16% of the biodegraded TOC. The results show that expanded clay aggregate media is a good alternative as biofilter material.

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