Measurements and modeling of the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) on oxide surfaces are presented and compared. Agreement is good and supports the view that the adsorption of NOM on oxides depends significantly on complex formation reactions between specific sites on oxide surfaces and functional groups on the NOM. Coagulant requirements can and often are set by the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a water source. Frequently there is a stoichiometric relationship between the required coagulant dosage and the TOC of the water to be treated. Other important factors include pH and the concentration of divalent cations. Ozone may benefit or retard coagulation, depending on coagulant type and the water quality characteristic that is dominant in setting the optimum coagulant dose.

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