Humic substances are high molecular weight, organic molecules that give the water a yellow/brownish colour. They are normally removed from water by coagulation. During the last 10 years around 70 membrane filtration plants for drinking water supply have been built in Norway. The paper outlines the basic design of these plants and gives information on choice of membrane, treatment efficiency, membrane flux, membrane fouling, membrane cleaning and disposal of wastes as well as general operating experiences. It is concluded that the owners of the membrane filtration plants are quite satisfied and that the method will be used in increasingly larger plants.
Practical experiences from membrane filtration plants for humic substance removal
H. Ødegaard, T. Thorsen, E. Melin; Practical experiences from membrane filtration plants for humic substance removal. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2000; 41 (10-11): 33–41. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2000.0602
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