The reuse of wastewater in fish farming is widely practiced to varying degrees in different regions of the world. Recently, the University of Michigan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries in Egypt, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, conducted a full-scale demonstration study in Egypt where raw sewage was treated and used in fish farming and the irrigation of crops and trees. The whole operation was carefully monitored for microbial pathogens, parasites, and toxic chemicals in the water and the fish. In spite of the fact that the produced fish were quite suitable for human consumption, consumers in Egypt did not accept them. While public health and safety concerns have traditionally been the main reason for resisting wastewater reuse, cultural and consumer behavior seem to be the overriding factors. International guidelines for hazard control in fish farming are not sufficient to change consumer behavior in certain regions of the world.

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