As for any other system used in wastewater treatment, it is important to know the mixing characteristics and net oxygen balance in high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs). The design of HRAPs obviously is conducive to plug flow, but with a large recirculation flow rate. The pond's treatment capacity will also depend on the net oxygen balance resulting from photosynthesis and respiration. In order to define an appropriate model describing the oxygen balance in the system, two techniques are respectively used for determining the hydrodynamic parameters and oxygen transfer coefficients of HRAPs.

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