There is a worldwide grave concern about water pollution control. To mitigate the water scarcity, in arid zones and in the areas with no other sources but brackish water, reverse osmosis technology has played an important role. In an effort to reduce the cost of energy requirement for RO operation, nanofiltration has been developed. Until recently the nanofiltration has been used in water softening and removal of disinfection byproduct (DBO). Use of nanofiltration to desalinate brackish water has been ruled out due to low rejection of salts. The introduction of ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis membrane, categorically a nanofiltration, has widened the horizon of using the nanofiltration in desalinating brackish water as well as surfacewater and wastewater. This development ensures the increase in flux due to improvement in active surface layer formation with the application of very small pressure. The surface charge and hydrophilicity on the surface material of the membrane have shown better flux stability in the high fouling conditions. With the addition of higher flux and higher rejection based on the same chemistry, ULPRO has made another step forward. This introduction will certainly reduce the operation cost and, more importantly, improve the overall reliability of the RO system. Application of nanofiltration is broadened to surface water treatment, wastewaters for nutrient removal and heavy metal rejection from wastewater.

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