This paper reviews ten years of research on on-site and in situ bioremediation of chlorophenol contaminated groundwater. Laboratory experiments on the development of a high-rate, fluidized-bed process resulted in a full-scale, pump-and-treat application which has operated for several years. The system operates at ambient groundwater temperature of 7 to 9°C at 2.7 d hydraulic retention time and chlorophenol removal efficiencies of 98.5 to 99.9%. The microbial ecology studies of the contaminated aquifer revealed a diverse chlorophenol-degrading community. In situ biodegradation of chlorophenols is controlled by oxygen availability, only. Laboratory and pilot-scale experiments showed the potential for in situ aquifer bioremediation with iron oxidation and precipitation as a potential problem.

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