In the Netherlands almost all wastewater treatment plants have been redesigned and adapted in order to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended solids to a very low level. The improved effluent quality leads to a growing interest in the reuse of effluent of the modernised wastewater treatment plants. This again results in investigations on filtration techniques as deep bed filtration and membrane filtration. At the wastewater treatment plant Ede research was done on deep bed filtration in order to develop relations between particle removal and filter performance and to explore ways of optimization.
The results of the experiments are rather typical for effluent of modern Dutch wastewater treatment plants. The very low concentrations of suspended solids and precipitable substances result in poor flocculating properties.
From turbidity measurements it may be concluded that the best results were obtained with a dosage of flocculant. However, the particle size measurements indicated the opposite. Suspended solids calculations, based on the particle volume distributions, showed a better removal without a dosage of flocculant. From this it is concluded that a dosage of coagulant (Fe3+ or Al3+) has an adverse effect on the removal efficiencies even at low dosages (1 mg/l).