The periodic variation of operation states in triple ditch (BIO-DENITRO process) was investigated in a pilot-scale and a full-scale triple ditch treating raw wastewater containing 70% petrochemical wastewater and 30% domestic wastewater. Mathematical models describing the periodic variation of activated sludge concentrations in each ditch were proposed based on theoretical analysis and were verified in the pilot-scale and full-scale triple ditches respectively. The existence of optimal cycle time and time arrangement of periodic operation programs were demonstrated and discussed according to the mathematical models and the experimental results of the pilot-scale triple ditch operated in four different stages. Four rulers determining the duration and operation programs are suggested.

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