The urban wastewater system components (sewer, treatment plant, and river) are often modelled using complex mechanistic models. Mechanistic surrogate models are introduced here as simplified models that still contain some physical knowledge. Surrogate models are faster, but are less but still sufficiently accurate, and require more data to be calibrated. The possibilities of replacing actual field data by virtual data generated with a complex mechanistic model for calibration of the surrogate model are examined. As an example, a series of tanks with variable volume is shown to approximate sufficiently well the flow propagation in the river Zwalm (Belgium) as predicted by the “de Saint-Venant” equations.
The three surrogate models can be implemented in the WEST® simulator, which makes a simultaneous simulation of the system possible. In this work a connection is made between the ASM1 and the new IWA River Model No. 1 (RWQM1) by using a translator between the models in such a way that both mass and elemental balances remain closed for the overall system. This approach is illustrated with a case study on the river Lambro (Italy). The dispersion process in this river with steady flow could be modelled by using a tanks in series model, while the water quality in the river was predicted to improve substantially with an increase in hydraulic capacity of the treatment plant. The simulation results with the upgraded plant still need to be checked by field data.