Activated sludge models are used extensively in the study of wastewater treatment processes. While various commercial implementations of these models are available, there are many people who need to code models themselves using the simulation packages available to them. Quality assurance of such models is difficult. While benchmarking problems have been developed and are available, the comparison of simulation data with that of commercial models leads only to the detection, not the isolation of errors. To identify the errors in the code is time-consuming.

In this paper, we address the problem by developing a systematic and largely automated approach to the isolation of coding errors. There are three steps: firstly, possible errors are classified according to their place in the model structure and a feature matrix is established for each class of errors. Secondly, an observer is designed to generate residuals, such that each class of errors imposes a subspace, spanned by its feature matrix, on the residuals. Finally, localising the residuals in a subspace isolates coding errors. The algorithm proved capable of rapidly and reliably isolating a variety of single and simultaneous errors in a case study using the ASM1 activated sludge model. In this paper a newly coded model was verified against a known implementation. The method is also applicable to simultaneous verification of any two independent implementations, hence is useful in commercial model development.

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