The paper summarizes the results of the studies on radiation purification of polluted water and wastewater conducted in the author's laboratory in cooperation with other institutions. The removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury) from water and wastewater, the purification of wastewater from surfactant and petroleum products, molasses distillery slops, municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow, river water from colored natural organic pollutants, wastewater of dyeing complex and paper mill, the decomposition of some dyes, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine-containing organic compounds, formic acid, etc. were investigated in detail. As a rule, electron-beam treatment in combination with ordinary methods (biological, coagulation, adsorption, flotation, etc.) was used. The main attention is paid to the mechanism of purification of the studied systems. The role of redox reactions of primary products of water radiolysis and secondary short-lived species formed from pollutants, formation of precipitates capturing the pollutants etc. is discussed.

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