Developing countries occupy regions where the climate is warm most of the time. Even in sub-tropical areas, low temperatures do not persist for long periods. This is the main factor that makes the use of anaerobic technology applicable and less expensive, even for the treatment of low-strength industrial wastewaters and domestic sewage. Based mainly on papers presented at the ‘VI Latin-American Workshop and Seminar on Anaerobic Digestion’ held in Recife, Brazil, in November 2000, this text approaches the perspectives of anaerobic treatment of wastewaters in developing countries. Emphasis is given to domestic sewage treatment and to the use of compact systems in which sequential batch reactors (SBR) or dissolved-air flotation (DAF) systems are applied for the post-treatment of anaerobic reactor effluents. Experiments on bench- and pilot-plants have indicated that these systems can achieve high performance in removing organic matter and nutrients during the treatment of domestic sewage at ambient temperatures.

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