The use of a biological cover for in situ control of gaseous sulfide emission from an anaerobic pond was investigated by a laboratory-scale experiment. The biological cover, constituting by a peat bed floating on the wastewater, caused a reduction of the H2S emission rate by 84.6%. The addition of Fe3+ (with FeCl3) and plants (Juncus effusus L.) to the peat bed significantly improved the performance to reach a H2S removal of 95.5%. Despite the fluctuations in the sulfide concentration in the wastewater, the performance of the biological covers remained constant during the entire period of the study. The analysis of the different forms of sulfur accumulated in the peat beds allowed the understanding of the mechanisms involved in H2S removal. The high amount of sulfate demonstrated that the conditions were favorable to the biological oxidation of H2S. The addition of Fe3+ increased the formation of insoluble ferrous monosulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS2). The plants seemed to convert sulfate into elemental and organic sulfur.

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