The sustainability of wastewater reclamation and reuse schemes is often limited by the increase in salt concentration that occurs with each water use. In this pilot study, we show that the cost of reclaiming wastewater and removing salt can be dramatically decreased by integrating recent advances in wastewater pond design, solids separation equipment, and membrane technology. Effluent from an AIWPS® Facility was clarified in a Krofta® SupracellTM Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit and a Slow Sand Filter (SSF) prior to final treatment in an Expertise S.r.l. reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The ponds of the AIWPS® Facility removed an average of 82% of soluble BOD and 80% of soluble nitrogen. Following clarification, filtration, and RO treatment, the pollutant removals were > 99% for soluble BOD, > 99% for soluble nitrogen, and 98% for TDS. Based on membrane fouling rate data, the cleaning interval for the RO membranes in a full-scale AIWPS®-RO Facility would be over 100 days. This interval is on par with that typically seen in full-scale reclamation facilities treating secondary activated sludge effluent with microfiltration prior to reverse osmosis. A 4-MLD AIWPS®-RO Facility is expected to produce permeate water at substantially lower cost and lower energy consumption (US $698 and 443 kWh per million liters treated) than a system of equal capacity using conventional activated sludge secondary treatment followed by microfiltration and reverse osmosis (US $1274 and 911 kWh per million litres treated). This cost and energy differential is attributable to the lower capital and operating expenses of the AIWPS® Technology in comparison with activated sludge.
Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® Technology and reverse osmosis
J.B. Downing, E. Bracco, F.B. Green, A.Y. Ku, T.J. Lundquist, I.X. Zubieta, W.J. Oswald; Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® Technology and reverse osmosis. Water Sci Technol 1 January 2002; 45 (1): 117–125. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2002.0016
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