The goal of the flocculation process is to change the particle size distribution to best suit the subsequent processes. Although several methods exist to evaluate the flocculation process, no single universally accepted method has yet to be developed. The purpose of this paper is to present experiences whereby particle counting was used in the diagnosis and optimization of the flocculation process. A commercially available on-line continuous particle counter has been used in evaluating the design and the operation of this process at two conventional Water Treatment Plants. The evaluation is based on particle dynamics, i.e., the change of the number of small and large particles. Some design deficiencies in the distribution channel and flocculation process have been identified from this method, and thus some operational parameters are suggested for optimum performance. Because the optimum condition may be site-specific, the method presented in this paper will be beneficial in the evaluation of the flocculation process at other water treatment plants.

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