Small-scale industrial enterprises play a highly important role in the development of countries such as India and China since they tend to be labour-intensive, contribute to decentralised industrial development, and are flexible and responsive to emerging demands. However they also often use outdated and highly polluting technologies and, operating in very competitive environments, have very limited financial reserves to invest in “non-productive” pollution control technologies. There has been very little research anywhere into low-cost pollution-control technologies or more applicable pollution control strategies for this sector.

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