An automatic sampling and measurement system was developed to take water samples efficiently during rain events. The system consisted of an automatic sampler, a rain gauge and a data logger as well as sensors for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and both water and air temperature. The system was tested in a stream in a forested watershed (5.8 km2) located in the middle of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. The sampling program has been improved gradually. For several rain events of 30 to 157 mm, most water samples were in agreement with the hydrograph from the beginning of each rainfall until the rain had stopped and the water level had begun to fall. The fluctuations in water quality in the samples taken by the automatic sampler during those rain events showed patterns similar to those of water samples taken by hand. There were also no problems with the water level or the EC sensor during the investigation periods, but the pH values were lower than those in the laboratory. The results showed that the system is suitable for taking water samples from mountainous streams during rain events.

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