On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses of several isolates of “Nostocoida limicola” from activated sludge plants in Australia and other countries, it is clear that “N. limicola” I, II and III are not three morphological variants of a single bacterium but at least three phylogenetically different bacteria. Data show that “N. limicola” I are members of at least two genera in the low mol% G+C Gram-positive bacteria, while some isolates of “N.limicola” II belong to the high mol% G+C Gram positive bacteria, and “N.limicola” III is a member of the Planctomycetales. Design and application of 16S rRNA targeted probes for each to biomass samples suggests that their phylogeny is more diverse than pure culture studies would suggest.

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