Since the development of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's 503 biosolids Rule, which includes treatment requirements to reduce the threat of pathogen transmission, many new pathogens have been recognized which could be transmitted by biosolids. A risk analysis was performed to assess which emerging pathogens would be most likely to survive treatments required for Class B biosolids before land application. The literature was reviewed on the resistance of emerging pathogens to temperature and other environmental factors to assess their probability of surviving various biosolids treatment processes. In addition existing information on occurrence in biosolids and dose response models for each pathogen was reviewed. It was concluded that adenoviruses and hepatitis A virus are the most thermally resistant viruses and can survive for prolonged periods in the environment. The protozoan parasites microsporidia and Cyclospora were unlikely to survive the temperatures achieved in anaerobic digestion and do not survive well under low moisture conditions. A risk model was used to assess the risk of infection and illness from enteric viruses after application of class B biosolids.

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