An autotrophic denitrification system was developed for nitrate contaminated industrial wastewater whose C/N ratio was very low. The microbes containing Thiobacillus denitrificans as a dominant species were attached on the surface of granular elemental sulfur packed in a column. Elemental sulfur was used as an electron donor for autotrophic denitrification. The granules of limestone were mixed with the granular sulfur to moderate the decrease of alkalinity during autotrophic denitrification. The stoichiometry and basic kinetics of denitrification were studied in column runs. The effects of minerals such as phosphorus on treatment performance were clarified. The wastewater from steel production plants was treated by the present biofilm process. Low extent of nitrogen removal was caused by the lack of minerals.

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