Ferric chloride and aluminium sulphate as coagulants and positive charged flocculants PDDMAC ((PDDMAC = poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) were used for pre-treatment of water and wastewater for removing humic substance prior to RO membrane filtration. It was found that a combination of flocculant and coagulant enhanced the coagulation-flocculation process and humic acid removal. The optimum conditions of coagulation-flocculation were established in reference to the ratio of humic acid and coagulant. Zeta potential and the ratio of E4/E6 were investigated to explore the possible micro-mechanisms of coagulation-flocculation. The ratios of E4/E6 show the molecular size variations using different coagulants and flocculants, which are expected to benefit membrane-fouling control.
Characteristics of coagulation-flocculation of humic acid with effective performance of polymeric flocculant and inorganic coagulant
J. Yu, D.D. Sun, J.H. Tay; Characteristics of coagulation-flocculation of humic acid with effective performance of polymeric flocculant and inorganic coagulant. Water Sci Technol 1 January 2003; 47 (1): 89–95. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2003.0024
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