In this paper coarse media filtration has been analysed as an alternative to the traditional settling in primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater. Various filter media configurations were evaluated for enhanced primary filtration. It was found that a dual media configuration based on Kaldnes biofilm media (K1 and K2modified) were most suitable when taking both separation efficiency as well as filter run time into consideration. SS removal efficiencies of around 75% were achieved in the dual Kaldnes primary filter at around 20 m/h without any chemical addition and around 85% at low dosage (1-2 mg/l) of a high MW cationic polymer FO4440SH. In the latter case COD was removed by around 70%. Further experiments were carried out on a multi-media Kaldnes-Filtralite-Sand (KFS) filter for enhanced primary treatment as well as for secondary filtration directly downstream of a high-rate moving bed biofilm reactor, resulting in an extremely compact secondary treatment process. The secondary KFS-filter gave SS-removal efficiencies around 90% (effluent SS < 15 mg/l) and filter run times of around 24 hrs at filtration rates of 10 m/h (sludge loading rates of around 1 kg /m2h) when a small dose (2 mg/l) of polymer was used. It is also demonstrated that the primary filter may also be utilised as a pre-denitrification reactor. A denitrification rate of 1.5 kg NO3-Nequiv./m3d was achieved when the filter was operated at a filtration rate of 5 m/h.

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