An integrated sensor is developed as a tool for monitoring the activated sludge activity on which the performance of the treatment plant depends. The sensor provides information-rich data of high frequency obtained from respirometric-titrimetric and nitrate measurements in one single set-up. The sensor is shown to successfully monitor and provide in-depth insight into nitrification, denitrification and carbon source degradation processes occurring in BNR plants. Based on the experimental results it is hypothesized that the ratio of NUR to OUR rather reflects the rate of carbon source uptake (storage) under anoxic and aerobic conditions than growth process.

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